Brofenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Human Development focuses on the impact that environment, in addition to biology, has on an individual’s development.
“Before Bronfenbrenner, developmental psychology focused on individual influences on development in unnatural settings. Bronfenbrenner changed developmental psychology by calling attention to the large number of environmental influences on child development; from the people and institutions immediately surrounding a person to nation-wide cultural forces.
“It can be said that much of contemporary developmental psychology is the science of the strange behaviour of children in strange situations with strange adults for the briefest possible periods of time” -Urie Bronfenbrenner, 1977
Brofenbrenner’s P-P-C-T Model
Process – Person – Context- Time
The Process: The interactions between an individual and her environment
The Person: The student and his biological characteristics (including age, gender, appearance, intelligence, skills, perseverance, etc)
Context and Time: Bronfenbrenner created five “systems” to categorize influences on development. These are:
- Microsystem: The microsystem is the innermost layer of Bronfenbrenner’s model. This context is closest to an individual and encompasses interpersonal relationships and direct interactions with immediate surroundings.For example, family members and a child’s school are considered part of the microsystem.
- Mesosystem: The mesosystem includes interactions between various aspects of the microsystem. A relationship between a child’s family and the child’s school can be considered part of the mesosystem, because these two direct influences (parts of the microsystem) may interact.
- Exosystem: The exosystem does not directly affect individuals; rather, the exosystem encompasses aspects of structures within the microsystem.For example, financial difficulties within the family of origin, parental job loss, and so forth may affect a child, but do not involve the child directly.
- Macrosystem: The macrosystem is the outermost layer of Bronfenbrenner’s model. Bronfenbrenner suggested that individuals constantly interact with these systems. He also stated that both individuals and their environments constantly affect one another
By developing our understanding the environmental influences on development, JUMP! aims to create and facilitate programs that support positive individual and community development.
Bennet, Carson. “Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Development” Prezi Slideshow, 25 January 2014, http://prezi.com/z5ovp8kwnm2f/bronfenbrenners-bioecological-model-of-development/
Bergen, D. (2008). Human development: traditional and contemporary theories. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. p. 220. ISBN 0131343971.Bronfenbrenners ModelBronfenbrenners Model
Bronfenbrenner, Urie & Morris P.A.; 200y6; “The Bioecological Model of Human Development”; Handbook of Child Psychology (pp.793-828).
Mastery Mountain is a model of how one can master any skill. Starting from the bottom of the model, before having a skill one is most frequently “unconsciously incompetent” or “consciously incompetent”. Mastery of the skill progresses up Mastery Mountain, until one is “unconsciously competent”.
Time: 5-10 Minutes
Tuckman’s Stages displayed on a flipchart or power point.
The Tuckman’s model has four stages:
- Forming- Here the group has just been created, getting to know one-another
- Storming: Groups normally don’t start working efficiently right away, there might be power struggles, disagreement, or simply they haven’t figured out how to use their team members to the best of their ability.
- Norming: You’ve reached a point as a group where you are in agreement, and you know how thinks can work best as a team.
- Performing: You work together efficiently as a team in this point.
Tuckman, B. (1965) Developmental Sequence in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384-399.
Tuckman, B. & Jensen, M. (1977). Stages of small group development. Group and Organizational Studies, 2, 419-427.
The Powers of Community provide participants with the opportunity to create their own experience.
Typical Grade Level:
Typical Time Frame:
- Growth Mountain Model (Flipchart or Power point)
- Growth Mountain is a model that helps you see how you’re growing or not growing in an experience.
- There are three places you can be on in this mountain. (Details below)
- Great model to see where you are and where you want to be in any given experience.
Also See Growth Mountain Activity
- PVC Model (Flipchart or Power point)
PVC stands for Prisoner, Vacationer, and Change-Maker’
- These are mindsets you can have in any given experience
In this mindset you may feel trapped in a situation and completely unhappy. You are stuck in a situation and your not really trying to find a way out.
In this mindset things are great, you feel fine, and you can just kick back and go for the ride. There are many things going on around you but your not really focused on what’s happening, your in your own world.
Change-Makers are able to assess their position in any situation, and work to change things so that they are making the most out of their
PVC Activity Suggestions
1. Create a list of scenarios that your participants may encounter in life and/ or on the program (i.e. “Going on family vacation”, “Completing a group project”, “Participating in this program”)
2. Make three big signs, one each for Prisoner, Vacationer, Leader. Place the signs on three different walls of your program space (or on the floor or ground, depending on space available)
3. Begin the activity by reviewing the PVC model with the participants (using the model displayed on a flipchart or PowerPoint slide). Ask participants to tell you what a mindset is, discuss the meaning of mindset and some common mindsets. Review the PVC model after they understand the meaning of ‘mindset’.
4. One at a time, read out your list of prompts and have participants move to the sign that depicts their mindset in each scenario.
5. Once the participants have moved to a sign, you may choose to have them discuss their mindset with the others at that station, or explain their mindset to a group at a different station.
6. You may wish to ask participants what it would take for them to change their mindset in particular situations. Is it possible to change ones mindset in challenging situations? Why or why not?